Filmmaking is an art, but, like so many art forms, there are basic underlying tools and techniques and a body theoretical knowledge that must be understood and mastered before artistic expression can flourish. This book is an invaluable resource for all aspiring DoPs. Practical Cinematography can be dipped into for quick reference - perhaps to answer a specific question or deal with practical problems relating to a shoot - or read from cover to cover. It discusses the principles of cinematography and the expertise which is unique to the Director of Photography (DoP). It deals with all the basic theory such as color temperature and sensitometry, and all the practical things a DoP needs to know, from the make-up of the crew to how to prepare an equipment list.
PART ONE The unit The Director of Photography The DP's Responsibilities In early Pre-production Closer to shoot preparation During shooting Post production The DP's Preparation Research Preparing for a shoot The recces The DP's preparation The camera equipment list The lighting equipment list The film stock breakdown The technical schedule The Camera Crew An Overview The Trainee The Clapper Loader (AC 2) The Focus Puller (AC 1) The Camera Operator The Grip The Gaffer Crew Protocol PART TWO The Technology The Motion Picture Camera The Persistence of Vision Frame Rates The Intermittent Mechanism The Reflex Viewfinder Viewing Screens The Film Magazine Film Camera Layout Lenses Artistic Decisions Characteristics of Lenses The Fundamentals Perceived sharpness with regard to contrast Maximum aperture Telephoto lenses Wide-angle lenses Zooms Conclusions Choice Modern Lens Designs Lens Distortion and Aberrations Film Stock What is Film? The history of the negative/positive photographic process The basic photographic process Colour Negative Film Grain and Graininess When does Grain become unacceptable? Perforations Edge Numbers Care, Shipping and Handling Basic Sensitometry The Laboratory The Laboratory Contact Printer Lights Contact Printing Optical Printing Negative Cutting Cinema Release Prints The "Long Handled" Negative Cut Film Grading Telecine Grading PART THREE The Cinematographers Craft Exposure Meters Camera Speed Shutter Speed Average Scene Reflectance Value Types of Exposure Meter Lighting Ratios Defining a Lighting Ratio Visualising Lighting Ratios Lighting Ratios for Film and Television Lighting Ratios when shooting for both Film and Television Using Lighting Ratios on the Set Controlling the Whole Scene Three Point Image Control There's no such thing as exposure latitude Three Point Image Control Relating the three points to the sensitometric curve Control for television Using the 18% Grey Scale The Messenger Controlling Print Density Shifting Colour Intentional Colour Changes Developments in Grey Cards Conclusions Colour Temperature What is Colour Temperature? Filters and Mired Shift Values The Colour Temperature Meter Colour Film Correcting Lamps Camera Filters Colour Compensating Filters Colour Correction Filters Skin Tone Warmer Sepia, Coral, colour effects, etc. Graduated Filters Neutral Density Low Contrast Ultra Contrast Fog Double fog Pro Mist Star filters Nets Matching Shots Enhancing Filters Fluorescent Light Correction Pola Screens Filter Factors The Pan Glass Depth of Field Depth of Focus Circles of Confusion Depth of Field and Super 16mm to 35mm Blow Ups Super 16mm and 16 x 9 Television 35mm Film Depth of Field when only shown on Television Depth of Field Calculators The Effect of Aperture on Depth of field The Effect of Focal Length on Depth of Field The Mathematics of Depth of Field Testing Why so much checking? Who Checks? Tests that involve shooting film include: Lens Testing Gamma Testing What to do with the Film Tests Non Film Testing Stores The Camera Car PART FOUR Operating Composition and the Rule of Thirds Framing using the Rule of Thirds Framing using the Sixths Diagonal Framing Complex and Combined Composition Lenses and Perspective Frame Size and Focal Length Perspective Focal length and emotional involvement What is a Normal focal length? Aspect Ratios The 35mm Frame The Aspect Ratio Widescreen Three Perforation Pull Down Two perforation pull down Anamorphic 65mm and 70mm Super 35 Television PART FIVE The Future Shooting Super 16mm for Television Aspect Ratios when shooting for television History - The evolution of the Super 16mm format 16 x 9 Television and Super 16 Framing in several formats Framing Solutions Festival Prints High Definition HD - is it the future? Picture Quality HD Acquisition Multi episodic Features Television Editing HD Presentation Distribution Cinema projection Will Digital Cinema come? So, film is not dead!